Most modern cars have brake on all four wheels, operated by a hydraulic system. The brakes may be disc type or drum type. The front brakes play a greater part in stopping the car than the rear ones, because braking throws the car weight forward on to the front wheels. Many cars therefore have disc brakes, which are generally more efficient, at the front and drum brakes at the rear. All-disc braking systems are used on some expensive or high-performance cars, and all-drum systems on some older or smaller cars. Disc Brake, the pressurized fluid enters the brake caliper forcing the brake pads to move inwards against the revolving disc (which is connected to the front wheels). When the brake pads comes in contact with the disc, a friction is generated which reduces the speed of the disc which in turn reduces the speed of the vehicle and eventually stopping your vehicle. Drum brake, the pressurized fluid now enters the brake cylinder inside the Drum brakes. There are pistons inside these cylinders, these pistons move outwards because of the brake pressurized fluid inside the cylinder. This outward movement of the piston causes the brakes shoes to move towards the rotating drum. When these brake shoes rub against the drum, friction is generated converting the kinetic energy into heat energy and thereby stopping your vehicle.
Types of breaking system
Electromagnetic Brake System
Electromagnetic brakes are getting popular now-a-days. It uses electric motor that is included in the automobile which help the vehicle come to a stop. It is mostly found in hybrid and electric cars and uses an electric motor to charge the batteries and regenerative brakes.
Frictional Brake System
It is the traditional braking system and commonly found in most of the automobiles. They are service brakes, and typically found in two forms; Pads(Disc) and Shoes(Drums). As the name implies, these brakes use friction to stop the automobile from moving. The pads are located on top of the disc which is rotating with the front wheel, and the shoes are located inside the drum which is rotating with the rear wheel. The pads will close in on the disc and stop the vehicle and the shoes will expand and rub with drum to stop the vehicle.
Hydraulic Brake System
A hydraulic brake system is composed of a master cylinder that is fed by a reservoir of hydraulic braking fluid. This is connected by an assortment of metal pipes and rubber fittings which are attached to the cylinders of the wheels. The wheels contain two opposite pistons which are located on the band or drum brakes which pressure to push the pistons apart forcing the brake pads into the cylinders, thus causing the wheel to stop moving.